阿尔茨海默病的疾病和痴呆症

阿尔茨海默病:迹象,症状,原因和阶段

Alzheimer’s is a frightening prospect as you age. But by understanding your risk factors and differentiating the symptoms from normal signs of aging, you can ensure early intervention and the best possible outcome.

儿子用胳膊父亲,在他们走的当时微笑

什么是阿尔茨海默病?

阿尔茨海默病是最常见的痴呆形式,占全球痴呆症病例的60%至70%。它是一种逐渐退化神经元的进步性脑障碍,导致记忆力丧失和思维和行为的变化。根据阿尔茨海默氏症的协会,十分之一的美国人超过65岁,超过85岁的近三分之一,具有阿尔茨海默病。在许多其他国家/地区报告了类似的数字,每年在全球诊断数以百万计的新病例。

由于它是一种进步疾病,阿尔茨海默氏症的症状通常会随着时间的推移缓慢发展和恶化。轻度遗忘的钥匙,忘记姓名,或重复的问题 - 最终拒绝了广泛的脑损伤。作为关键细胞死亡,可能发生对您的记忆和人格的急剧变化,导致情绪和行为问题,并无法记住,沟通或处理信息,或执行日常生活的功能。最终,我们每个人都有一天的患有阿尔茨海默病的疾病需要照顾和援助。

怀疑你或亲人正在展示阿尔茨海默氏症的迹象,这可能是一种变化,深刻的可怕和压力的经历。但是,虽然目前没有针对阿尔茨海默的治疗,但这并不意味着你无能为力地对抗这种疾病。首先,重要的是要记住,并非所有内存损失都表明阿尔茨海默氏症或另一种形式的痴呆。区分衰老正常迹象和更严重的东西的症状是至关重要的。

其次,即使你实现了最害怕的恐惧,你早期的诊断和寻求帮助,你的前景越好。有些症状有治疗,有大量的持续研究正在寻找新的疗法。还有特定的生活方式变化,可以高效地帮助您减缓阿尔茨海默氏症的进展,延长了您的独立性,尽可能长时间保持您的生活质量。

[阅读:痴呆症状,类型和原因]

什么是早期的Alzheimer?

早盘或幼年症的症状发生在65岁之前发生的,通常在中年,有时甚至早在30多岁。在那些父母或祖父母也在年轻时开发这种疾病的人中更常见。在某些情况下,该疾病是由罕见的基因突变引起的,其可以从父母传递给孩子。

Recognizing Alzheimer’s symptoms at any age is never easy. In middle-age or younger, it can present even more challenges to your relationships, work, and family life. But it’s important to remember that you’re not alone. Early-onset Alzheimer’s affects about five percent of Alzheimer’s patients and there is help available. As well as ensuring you get an accurate diagnosis and start treatment early, the same steps that can帮助预防疾病may also help you delay the onset of more debilitating symptoms.

原因和风险因素

尽管存在普遍存在和对疾病的研究数量,但仍然有很多关于阿尔茨海默氏症的难题。长期以来,科学家寻找阿尔茨海默氏症的原因,主要集中在脑 - 淀粉样蛋白中的蛋白质的积聚,该蛋白质中积聚在斑块和tau中,这些斑纹和tau形成缠结 - 这使得神经连接逐渐破坏记忆和思考。

然而,新的证据表明,许多其他因素也可能在疾病的发展中发挥作用,例如炎症,免疫障碍,暴露于毒素,以及脑处理葡萄糖的方式变化。由于妇女在比男性的速率明显更高的率高,因此可能对这种疾病有助于这种疾病。

With the exception of early-onset Alzheimer’s, the disease is most likely triggered by a combination of advancing age and genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

风险因素

虽然Alzheimer疾病的症状通常不会出现在生活中的晚期,但在65岁以下,风险因素可能会更早地发展。有些 - 例如年龄,家族史和遗传 - 显然是任何人的控制。其他,例如影响您的脑部健康饮食,运动和血压的生活方式选择,例如 - 您可以在整个生命中影响的因素。事实上,英国的2017年学习得出结论,通过解决一些生活方式因素,可以防止多达35%的阿尔茨海默氏案。

[阅读:预防阿尔茨海默病和痴呆症]

Alzheimer的生活方式风险因素包括:

Heart problems。What’s good for your heart is also good for your brain. Eating a heart-healthy diet and避免高血压,心脏病,中风,糖尿病和高胆固醇可以显着降低您对阿尔茨海默病的风险。

肥胖。除了对心脏健康的不利影响,似乎超重似乎增加了在脑后脑中开发淀粉样蛋白斑块堆积的风险。保持健康的体重, on the other hand, reduces your risk of developing Alzheimer’s.

SmokingSmoking增加了血管疾病的风险,毒素可以增加炎症,这两种都是阿尔茨海默氏症和其他类型痴呆的危险因素。

社会孤立与抑郁症。老年人的孤独和社会孤立与增加的速率相关联沮丧,焦虑和过早死亡。CDC报告它还与痴呆症风险增加约50%。

睡眠不佳。缺乏质量睡眠,过度的白天嗜睡可能导致大脑功能受损,淀粉样蛋白斑块的增加增加,与阿尔茨海默氏菌有关。未经治疗睡眠呼吸暂停也可能让你更容易受到阿尔茨海默的伤害。

身体不活动经常锻炼你的身体是你为你的大脑做的最好的事情之一。它可以帮助您提高血管健康,保持健康的体重,睡眠更好,并管理抑郁症,所有主要的危险因素都是阿尔茨海默的。

Alcohol use。喝少量葡萄酒可能实际上有助于保护你的大脑,但是沉重或狂暴饮用has the opposite effect and increases your risk of Alzheimer’s.

Brain injury。Studies suggest that suffering a traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of developing Alzheimer’s in older age. While avoiding injury is often outside your control, you can help to lower your risk by protecting your head whenever possible, such as wearing a helmet when cycling or a seatbelt when driving.

阿尔茨海默病的早期征兆和症状

对于开发Alzheimer的大多数人来说,它往往是首先检测到的内存中的变化。您可能会注意到自己的拒绝或者是由家人或朋友指出的。但这种疾病大约不仅仅是记忆变化。阿尔茨海默氏症也呈现为语言,判断和抽象思维的问题。

The early warning signs of Alzheimer’s disease include:

  1. Memory loss that impacts your daily life.您经常忘记最近被告知的重要事件,日期或事物,导致您不断重复自己或越来越依赖于您手机上的粘滞便笺或提醒。
  2. 努力在谈话或写作时找到单词。您难以遵循或加入对话,忘记您所说的,或者遇到命名熟悉的对象。
  3. Difficulty with visual images or judging distance.你有难以平衡或驾驶,更频繁地跌倒或溢出。阅读也可能更具挑战性。
  4. Misplacing thingssuch as putting your wallet in the fridge and then having difficulty retracing your steps to find it.
  5. 处理熟悉的任务问题such as driving to familiar destinations, using your phone or computer, or following recipes you used to know well.
  6. Trouble with planning or problem solving.You struggle to concentrate and deal with numbers, making it harder to pay bills, balance your checkbook, or manage your finances.
  7. 关于时间或地点的混乱。你忘记了日期或季节,忘了你所在的地方或你是如何在那里的地方。
  8. 退出社会利益。你忽视了你曾经享受和贬低社交活动的爱好和兴趣。
  9. 判断力恶化。你忽视你的个人衔接giene, struggle to care for a pet, or find yourself the victim of scams.
  10. 情绪和人格变化。你很容易沮丧,快速愤怒,或者经常感到沮丧,焦虑,可疑或困惑。

[Read: Recognizing Alzheimer’s Disease]

Other causes of Alzheimer’s symptoms

其他条件可以模仿阿尔茨海默氏症的症状,例如:

中枢神经系统和其他退行性疾病,包括头部伤,脑肿瘤,中风,癫痫,挑选疾病,帕金森病了, and Huntington’s disease.

代谢疾病,如甲状腺功能亢进,低血糖,营养不良,维生素缺乏,脱水和肾脏或肝脏衰竭。

Substance-induced conditions,如药物相互作用,药物副作用,酒精和drug abuse

心理因素,如抑郁症,情绪创伤,chronic stress,精神病,慢性睡眠剥夺和谵妄。

感染, such as meningitis, encephalitis, and syphilis.

The difference between normal signs of aging and Alzheimer’s

对于许多人来说,检测自己或亲人的内存问题的第一个迹象带来了对阿尔茨海默病的立即担心。然而,我们大多数人超过65次经历了一些含量的健忘。Occasionally forgetting where you left your glasses, calling your grandson by your son’s name, walking into a room and forgetting why, or not quite being able to retrieve information you have “on the tip of your tongue”, for example, are not considered warning signs of Alzheimer’s disease.

It is normal for age-related brain shrinkage to produce changes in processing speed, attention, and short-term memory, creating so-called “senior moments”. For most of us, these occasional lapses in short-term memory are a normal part of the aging process.

[阅读:年龄相关的记忆损失]

衰老和阿尔茨海默病的正常迹象之间的主要差异是前者不会影响您在日常生活中起作用的能力。偶尔的内存失误,因为你变老,不要阻止你做你想做的事。然而,在阿尔茨海默病的疾病中,记忆力损失变得如此严重,即它扰乱了你的工作,爱好,社交活动和家庭关系。

正常变化的迹象与早期阿尔茨海默氏症的症状
正常变化:找不到你的钥匙。

Early Alzheimer’s:Routinely place important items in odd places, such as keys in the fridge, wallet in the dishwasher.

正常变化:Search for casual names and words.

Early Alzheimer’s:Forget names of family members and common objects, or substitute words with inappropriate ones.

正常变化:简要忘记对话细节。

Early Alzheimer’s:Frequently forget entire conversations.

正常变化:Feel the cold more.

Early Alzheimer’s:Dress regardless of the weather. For example, wearing several skirts on a warm day or shorts in a snow storm.

正常变化:Can’t find a recipe.

Early Alzheimer’s:不能遵循食谱方向。

正常变化:忘记记录支票。

Early Alzheimer’s:Can no longer manage checkbook, balance figures, solve problems, or think abstractly.

正常变化:Cancel a date with friends.

Early Alzheimer’s:退出通常的兴趣和活动,坐在电视机前几个小时,比平常更睡觉。

正常变化:Make an occasional wrong turn.

Early Alzheimer’s:在熟悉的地方迷路,不记得你在那里有什么或如何回家。

正常变化:偶尔难过。

Early Alzheimer’s:经历快速的情绪波动,从泪水愤怒,无论是可辨别的原因。

Diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease

There is no single definitive medical test for identifying Alzheimer’s. To make a diagnosis from your symptoms,a doctor will look for:

Significant memory problemsin immediate recall, short-term, or long-term memory.

显着的认知赤字在四个区域中的至少一个:

  1. Expressing or comprehending language.
  2. 通过感官识别熟悉的对象。
  3. 协调,步态或肌肉功能。
  4. 规划,订购和制定判断的执行职能。

情绪,人格和行为问题such as experiencing sleep problems, depression, anxiety, or mood swings.

疲劳足够严重to interfere with relationships and/or work performance.

逐渐出现的症状and become steadily worse over time.

其他原因被排除在外为了确保记忆和认知症状不是另一种医学条件或疾病的结果,例如轻度认知障碍。

Alzheimer’s disease vs. mild cognitive impairment (MCI)

早期痴呆症,也称为轻度认知障碍(MCI),涉及内存,语言或其他认知功能的问题。但与拥有全吹的阿尔茨海默氏症的人不同,MCI的人仍然能够在日常生活中运作,而不依赖他人。

According to the Alzheimer’s Association, about 15 to 20 percent of people over the age of 65 experience mild cognitive impairment. Many people with MCI eventually develop Alzheimer’s disease or another type of dementia. However, others plateau at a relatively mild stage of decline and are able to live independently. Some people with mild cognitive impairment even return to normal.

MCI的症状包括:

  • 经常失去或放错东西。
  • 经常忘记对话,约会或事件。
  • Difficulty remembering the names of new acquaintances.
  • Difficulty following the flow of a conversation.

It is not yet fully understood why MCI progresses to Alzheimer’s disease in some, while remaining stable in others. The course is difficult to predict, but in general, the greater the degree of memory impairment, the greater the risk of developing Alzheimer’s down the line.

Coping with a diagnosis

Alzheimer疾病的诊断是任何人想要听到的东西。虽然这无疑是一种改变生活的经验,但您将需要您和您的家庭时间来实现,这并不意味着您的生命结束。一旦您有诊断并了解您所面对的内容,您就可以开始采取措施减缓疾病的进展,并确保您可以尽可能完全充分地实现您的生活。

重要的是要给自己时间来处理e myriad of emotions you’re likely experiencing. Allowing yourself to feel even unpleasant emotions will allow the shock and distress of your diagnosis to eventually pass, and enable you to see a way forward. It’s also important to reach out to others at this difficult time. The love and support of friends and loved ones can make a huge difference to your mood and outlook.

同样,追求带给您意义和喜悦的活动可以帮助振兴您的目的感 - 无论是通过写回忆录或与家人一起度过更多的时间来吸引你的兴趣和兴趣,旅行,志愿者或建立遗产。

[阅读:应对阿尔茨海默氏症或痴呆症诊断]

减缓症状的进展

相同的健康生活方式改变防止阿尔茨海默病can also be useful in slowing the advancement of symptoms.

  1. Get regular exerciseto stimulate your brain’s ability to maintain old connections, make new ones, and slow deterioration of cognitive abilities.
  2. Stay socially engaged.Connecting face-to-face with others can help improve your cognitive function.
  3. Eat a brain-healthy diet.The right foods can help reduce inflammation and promote better communication between brain cells.
  4. Find mental stimulation.学习新事物并挑战你的大脑可以帮助加强你的认知技能。
  5. 获得优质睡眠to flush out brain toxins and avoid the build-up of damaging plaques.
  6. Manage stressto help slow shrinking in a key memory area of the brain and protect nerve cell growth.
  7. 照顾好你的心。Controlling your blood pressure and cholesterol levels can be just as good for your brain health.

Understanding the different stages of Alzheimer’s disease

了解Alzheimer的不同阶段可以帮助您跟踪症状的进展并计划适当的护理。然而,重要的是要记住,具有阿尔茨海默病的疾病的每个人都有不同的进展,并且有些步骤可以减缓每个阶段的症状发作。

Also, cognitive, physical, and functional phases often overlap, the time in each stage varies from patient to patient, and not everyone experiences all symptoms.

两种常用的阿尔茨海默师的进展模型是3阶段模型和7阶段模型。

阿尔茨海默病的阶段:3阶段模型

在3阶段阿尔茨海默病的模型中:

Stage 1 – Mild/Early

Many people at this stage experience frequent recent memory loss, particularly of recent conversations and events. They may ask repeated questions and have some problems expressing and understanding language.

轻度协调问题包括难以编写和使用对象。抑郁和冷漠会发生,伴随情绪波动。他们可能需要提醒日常活动,难以驾驶。

期间:2到4年。

第2阶段 - 中等/中间

在这个阶段的人可能不再掩盖他们的问题。普遍性和持久的记忆损失包括对他们的个人历史和无法认识朋友和家人的健忘。他们可能会遇到漫无主义的言论,不寻常的推理和关于当前事件,时间和地点的混乱。它们更有可能在熟悉的环境中丢失,体验睡眠障碍,并经历情绪和行为的变化,这可以通过压力和变化加剧。

体验妄想,侵略和不羁的行为是常见的。流动性和协调受到缓慢,刚性和震颤的影响。他们需要结构,提醒和援助日常生活的活动。

期间:2到10年。

第3阶段 - 严重/晚

In late stage Alzheimer’s, most people are confused about past and present. They lose the ability to remember, communicate, or process information. They’re generally incapacitated with severe to total loss of verbal skills, unable to care for themselves, and likely immobile and prone to falls.

Problems with swallowing, incontinence, and illness are also common. Many also experience extreme problems with mood, behavior, hallucinations, and delirium. They need around the clock care.

期间:1 to 3+ years.

阿尔茨海默病的阶段:7阶段模型

除了阿尔茨海默的三个阶段,您的医生还可以使用五个,六个或七个级别的诊断框架。通过这些阶段的进展通常持续8到10年,但再次与人的不同之处,可以延伸到20年。

Alzheimer疾病的样本7-阶段模型:

Stage 1 – No Impairment

记忆和认知能力正常。

第2阶段 - 最小损伤/正常遗忘

Memory lapses and changes in thinking are rarely detected by friends, family, or medical personnel.

Stage 3 – Early Confusional/Mild Cognitive Impairment

While subtle difficulties begin to impact function, the person may try to cover up their problems. They may have difficulty with retrieving words, planning, organization, misplacing objects, and forgetting recent learning, which can affect life at home and work. Depression and other changes in mood can also occur.

期间:2 to 7 years.

第4阶段 - 未晚点/轻度阿尔茨海默病

数学挑战可能导致处理财务问题。越来越多地,该人将忘记最近的事件和对话,尽管这个阶段的大多数人仍然了解自己和他们的家人。

执行顺序任务的问题,包括烹饪,驾驶,订购食物,以及购物很常见。该人经常退出社交情况,变得防守,否认任何问题。

期间:roughly 2 years.

第5阶段 - 早期痴呆/中度阿尔茨海默病

下降更严重,人需要援助。它们不再能够独立管理或调用个人历史细节和联系信息。他们经常迷失方向或时间。

在这个阶段的人们体验了数值能力和判断技能的严重下降,这可能让他们容易受到骗局和安全问题。基本的日常生活任务,饮食和敷料需要增加监督。

期间:平均1.5岁。

Stage 6 – Middle Dementia/Moderately Severe Alzheimer’s disease

People in this stage are often no longer aware of present events and unable to accurately remember the past. They progressively lose the ability to take care of daily living activities like dressing, toileting, and eating, but are still able to respond to nonverbal stimuli, and communicate pleasure and pain via behavior.

搅拌和幻觉经常在下午晚些时候出现。戏剧性的个性变化,例如徘徊或怀疑家庭成员是常见的。许多人不记得亲密的家庭成员,但知道他们很熟悉。

期间:大约2.5岁。

第7阶段 - 晚期或严重的痴呆,并且失败茁壮成长

In this final stage, speech becomes severely limited, as well as the ability to walk or sit. Total support around the clock is needed for all functions of daily living and care.

期间:impacted by quality of care, but average length is 1 to 2.5 years.

Caring for someone with Alzheimer’s

在与阿尔茨海默病的疾病中照顾爱人,可以是一个漫长的,压力和强烈的情感旅程。但它也可能是一个有益的,生活肯定的经历。

The more you understand about the caregiving role, the better you’ll be able to prepare for future challenges and cope with the stress and emotional upheaval that comes with each new stage.

读:Tips for Alzheimer’s and Dementia Caregivers

你有助于保持帮助防护吗?raybet雷竞技二维码

四分之一的人将在他们生命中的某些时候挣扎着心理健康。raybet雷竞技苹果下载随着冠状病毒大流行和陷入困境的经济,许多人现在都在危机中。比以往更有,人们需要一个值得信赖的地方来寻求指导和希望。这是我们在帮助下的使命。raybet雷竞技二维码我们的免费在线资源确保每个人都能获得他们需要的帮助 - 无论他们生活的健康保险是什么,他们生活在哪里或他们能负担得起的东西。但作为不运行广告或接受公司赞助的非营利组织,我们需要您的帮助。如果你已经贡献了,谢谢。如果您还没有,请考虑帮助我们到达那些需要它的人:捐today from as little as $3

Last updated: March 2021

Get more help

Dementia Prevention, Intervention, and Care– UK studies in 2017 and 2020 highlighting Alzheimer’s prevention through lifestyle factors. (The Lancet)

Loneliness and Social Isolation Linked to Serious Health Conditions- 从国家科学研究,工程和医学(NASEM)的详细信息报告,与痴呆症的风险增加,将社会隔离联系起来。(CDC)

Find support

在里面U.S.:Call theAlzheimer的协会热线在1 800 272 3900或Alzheimer’s Foundation of Americaat 1-866-232-8484.

UK:Call the阿尔茨海默氏社会helpline at 0300 222 1122 or找到附近的支持

Australia:Call theDementia AustraliaHelpline在1800 100 500或在您所在地区寻找支持

加拿大:Find an Alzheimer Society在你的地区。

India:Call the Alzheimer’s and Related Disorders Society of India您所在地区的24小时助剂

在其他国家:浏览全球目录Alzheimer协会有关您附近的信息,建议和支持。(阿尔茨海默病国际)